Medical Clinic Not Responsible For Patient Who Causes An Automobile Accident

An elderly patient was examined during a scheduled appointment with a medical clinic. The patient was observed to be unstable. She advised the doctor's office that she was under a lot of stress due to concern over her daughter being diagnosed with cancer. Upon examination, the doctor did not find any evidence of impairment. She was determined to be alert, could maintain a conversation, and did not exhibit any behavior warranting concern over her ability to drive an automobile.

After the examination, the patient was taken in a wheelchair to her car in the parking lot. The patient then proceeded to drive, striking the back of the Plaintiff's car. The Plaintiff alleged that she was injured in the collision and blamed the clinic for allowing the patient to drive when she was incapable.

The medical clinic filed a motion for summary judgment which was granted by the court. The Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals affirmed summary judgment stating that simply because a patient is unsteady on her feet did not reasonably give the physicians notice that an accident would occur; that a nurse taking a patient to the parking lot in a wheel chair to prevent the patient from falling is not sufficient for the Plaintiff to bring suit; members of society are perfectly capable of knowing when they can safely operate an automobile and the clinic was not responsible.

No Insurance Coverage Available Because LLC Was Not A Named Insured

No Insurance Coverage Available Because LLC Was Not A Named Insured

No coverage was available to a limited liability company when it was not named as an insured in the liability insurance policy. An individual by the name of Kouk owned multiple businesses. One of the companies, Brown and Kouk Rentals, LLC, owned and rented apartments and mobile homes to people. Another business was Vernon & Sons Construction, LLC, involved in the construction trade. The businesses maintained separate bank accounts and no funds were commingled between the businesses. Vernon & Sons Construction obtained commercial liability insurance coverage through Columbia National Insurance. Vernon & Sons Construction was the only company listed on the insurance policy.

Mr. Kouk went out one evening to a renter's home to collect the rent. When he arrived, there was a party taking place in the front yard and he was invited to share a beer. Kouk joined the gathering around a burning fire and drank a beer with those present. When he finished, he put the bottle into a metal bucket that was in the fire. Several minutes later, the bottle exploded with a piece of the glass striking a young child of the renter causing him to lose sight in one eye. The father of the injured boy filed suit against Kouk for negligence.

Kouk notified Columbia National Insurance who provided an attorney to defend the case. Columbia retained separate counsel to conduct an investigation as to whether or not there would be coverage under the policy for the incident. The coverage investigation showed that Kouk was not conducting any business on behalf of Vernon & Sons Construction when the incident happened. Columbia determined there was no coverage from the loss and withdrew the defense of the injured boy's lawsuit.

Kouk proceeded to defend the lawsuit using his own personal attorney. The jury returned a verdict against Kouk in the sum of $427,000. The minor Plaintiff then filed suit against Columbia to recover the benefits of the insurance policy.

The Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals ruled:

1. The injured child could proceed directly against the insurer and without the requirement of a garnishment based upon the language in the policy allowing a party to recover a final judgment against an insured;

2. Mr. Kouk was not insured under the policy because he was not conducting business or performing duties as part of the business of the construction company when the accident occurred;

3. Columbia National was not estopped from denying coverage because Mr. Kouk had been timely informed there was a coverage question many months before the lawsuit was even filed.


Plaintiff filed a personal injury lawsuit against the Defendant that arose out of a gas pressure vessel explosion on an oil and gas lease. During the discovery phase of the lawsuit, a deposition was conducted of the former co-plaintiff in which the deponent testified he had installed a safety pressure valve three weeks prior to the explosion. Approximately six months after the testimony was given, Plaintiffs’ counsel submitted a correction to the deposition revising the testimony to reflect the valve had actually been installed after the explosion. A second deposition was conducted in which the co-plaintiff admitted to giving false testimony in order to mislead the Defendant, the court, and ultimately the jury. Defendant moved to dismiss the lawsuit based on Plaintiff’s perjury and prevailed. Plaintiff appealed.

The Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals affirmed the dismissal, holding:

1) the trial court acted properly within its authority to protect judicial process when it dismissed Plaintiff’s claim, and

2) Plaintiff’s rights to due process were not violated when the lawsuit was dismissed as a sanction to Plaintiff’s misconduct.

Agrawal v. Duke Energy Field Services, LP, 2013 OK CIV APP 61.

Insurance - Automobiles

A vehicle insured by Shelter Mutual Insurance Company was permissively being driven by an individual who was insured by American Farmers and Ranchers Mutual Insurance Company . The driver was involved in a collision that occurred when he turned left in front of another vehicle which resulted in injuries to the passengers of the second vehicle. The passengers of the other vehicle made claims for property damage and personal injury against the driver for his negligence and submitted claims to both insurance companies.

American Farmers’ policy contained an "other insurance" clause that stated: "provided, however, the insurance with respect to a . . . non-owned automobile shall be excess insurance over any other valid collectible insurance. . . ."

Shelter’s policy also contained an "other insurance" clause which stated: "if there is other insurance which covers the insured’s liability with respect to a claim also covered by this policy, coverages a and b (i.e., bodily injury and property damage liability) of this policy will apply only as excess to other insurance."

The two insurance companies jointly settled the claims and prorated the amount of the settlement based on the liability limits in the respective insurance policies. The Shelter insurance policy contained an "other insurance" exclusion which limited insurance coverage only to claims only in excess of other insurance which covered an insured’s liability. American Farmers reserved the right to recover from Shelter in the event Shelter’s "other insurance" clause was deemed invalid.

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Evidence Is Necessary For Products Liability Case To Survive Summary Judgment

Plaintiff purchased an aluminum ladder at his local Home Depot in September 2003. In 2006, Plaintiff fell while using the ladder when one of the legs "folded." In 2008, Plaintiff filed suit against Home Depot and Warner Company.

Plaintiff alleged that the ladder was defective and unreasonably dangerous. The ladder company, Warner, filed a motion for summary judgment, asserting that the ladder was not defective in design, manufacture or materials. Home Depot also filed a motion for summary judgment and attached evidentiary materials from an expert stating that there was no defect in the ladder.

In response to the motions for summary judgment, Plaintiff said he was competent to express an opinion concerning the allegedly defective design of the ladder. Plaintiff asserted that he was not obligated to produce expert testimony in support of his opinion concerning the existence of a defect.

The trial court granted summary judgment for the ladder company and Home Depot, finding that Plaintiff failed to file sufficient evidentiary material to rebut the expert reports submitted by the Defendants. Plaintiff appealed.

The Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals affirmed the summary judgment for the Defendants:

1) when Warner and Home Depot came forward with expert testimony to demonstrate no defect in the ladder, Plaintiff was required to come forward with some evidence to rebut this expert opinion;

2) Plaintiff had no special engineering or other expertise to express an opinion on the issue of design or manufacturing defects;

3) Plaintiff’s bald assertion that the ladder failed because of an alleged defect was insufficient to overcome the expert evidence provided by the defendants.

Doyle v. New Warner Holding Company, Inc., 2013 OK CIV APP 66, ___ P.3d ___

UM Insurance Coverage

A lawsuit arose from a claim presented by the Plaintiff to the insurance company for uninsured motorist coverage. In the claim, Plaintiff stated that he was injured while riding his motorcycle. A red car passed him and cut-off a beige car traveling in the lane in front of him causing the beige car to brake suddenly. As a result, Plaintiff locked his brakes and was forced to lay down his motorcycle to avoid a collision. Plaintiff collided with the center barrier wall at a high speed and sustained significant injuries.

Upon investigation, the insurance company found the Plaintiff to be 100% at fault. Since the beige car had been able to safely slow down without striking the red car, the insurance company reasoned the Plaintiff also should have been able to safely slow down unless he was following too closely. In addition, the police officer recorded Plaintiff’s blood alcohol level at 0.09 which is above the legal limit for operating a vehicle in Oklahoma. It was also noted Plaintiff was traveling at speeds 5-10 miles per hour above the speed limit. As such, the insurance company denied the claim concluding that UM coverage is not available when the insured was more than 50% at fault.

As a result of the denial of the claim, Plaintiff filed suit against the insurance company alleging breach of contract (a cause of action which was later dropped just before trial) and "bad faith".

The jury returned a verdict in favor of the Plaintiff agreeing that the insurance company had acted in bad faith by denying the claim. Shortly thereafter, the insurance company filed a motion for judgment as a matter of law arguing that it acted reasonably and relief upon legitimate reasons for denying the claim. Ultimately, the trial court granted the insurance company’s motion and ruled in favor of the insurer. Plaintiff appealed.

The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court’s judgment in favor of insurance company agreeing that based upon the facts known, a reasonable jury could not find that the insurance company failed to act reasonably in denying the claim. Further, there was no evidence showing the insurance company failed to properly investigate the claim. Bannister v. State Farm Mut. Automobile Ins. Co.,692 F.3d 1117, (10th Cir. 2012).

Insurance - Bad Faith

An apartment complex sustained a fire loss to its business and hired a public adjuster to assist in preparing the property damage claims. Subsequently, the apartment complex assigned its interest in the bad faith claims against the insurance company and insurance agency to the public adjusting company and, in turn, the public adjuster filed suit alleging bad faith. The insurance company and agent filed motions for summary judgment in the trial court and prevailed. The public adjuster appealed.

On appeal, the Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals found that the trial court properly granted summary judgment and held:

1) summary judgment for the insurer was appropriate because a bad faith claim arises from a tort and, under Oklahoma law, a tort cause of action is not assignable; and

2) summary judgment for the insurance agency was appropriate because, under Oklahoma law, an insured cannot bring a bad faith claim against an insurance agency or its agent because they are not parties to the insurance contract.


, 2013 OK CIV APP 67, 307 P.3d 400.

United Adjustment Services, Inc. v. Professional Insurors Agency, LLC

Examinations Under Oath Are Different Than Depositions

Examinations under oath, "EUO's", serve a purpose different from a deposition.  An insurance company is regularly asked to make a decision about payment or denial of a loss involving a sizeable sum of money without any ability to subpoena witnesses to testify.  Most policies provide for the taking of sworn testimony. 

Like Attorney Parks Chastain, whom I have never met, "I cannot count the number of times I have had an insured's lawyer misunderstand the difference between the two proceedings."  EUO

As Parks correctly points out:

"[c]ases recognize that 'depositions and examinations under oath serve different purposes.'  Nationwide Ins. Co. v. Nilsen, 745 So. 2d 264, 268 (Ala. 1999); accord Goldman v. State Farm Fire Gen. Ins. Co., 660 So. 2d 300, 305 (Fla. 4th DCA 1995).  The Supreme Court of Alabama explained:

[A]n examination under oath is a part of the claims investigation process. In contrast, a deposition is not part of the claims investigation process; it is designed to facilitate the gathering of information once an insured has denied the insured’s claim.

Nationwide Ins. Co., 745 So. 2d 269; accord Goldman, 660 So. 2d 305 (listing numerous distinctions between EUO’s and depositions, one of which explains that “examinations under oath are taken before litigation to augment the insurer’s investigation of the claim while a deposition is not part of the claim process”); see also Archie v. State Farm Fire & Cas. Co., 813 F. Supp. 1208, 1213 (S.D. Miss. 1992) (holding that depositions are different from examinations under oath); Craft v. Western Mut. Ins. Co., No. E030318, 2002 WL 225947, at *3 (Cal. Ct. App. Feb. 14, 2002) (“A deposition is not the examination under oath which the policy required.”)

Policyholders who refuse to appear for a scheduled examination can end up with their claim being denied.  Some courts have held that an insured's failure to submit to an EUO is a material breach of the policy conditions which can result in denial according to attorney Robert Reynolds who practices in Coral Gables, Florida.  Reynolds cited a sample of cases from various jurisdictions with their conclusions including courts that have upheld denial.

Insurance - Liquor Liability

A golf course was insured by an insurance policy which included "Liquor Liability Coverage". The parents of a 17-year-old girl working at a golf course brought a lawsuit against the golf course and its manager for allegedly providing alcohol to their daughter following a golf tournament. The girl attempted to drive after consuming a substantial amount of alcohol, crashed her vehicle into a tree, and sustained serious injuries to her spinal cord resulting in paraplegia.

The insurance policy provision obligated the insurance company to pay sums owed by the golf course if they were incurred "by reason of the selling, serving or furnishing of any alcoholic beverage." The insurance policy liability limits were set at $2 Million for the "Aggregate Limit" and $1 Million for "Each Common Cause Limit".

The insurance company subsequently filed a declaratory judgment action in Federal court asking the court to establish the maximum insurance coverage available to the golf course. A summary judgment was filed requesting the court rule that $1 Million was the applicable limit since all claimed damages arose from the injuries to one person and fell under "Each Common Cause". The girl’s parents argued the limit should be $2 Million.

The Federal court granted summary judgment in favor of the insurance company finding the maximum limit of liability was established at $1 Million for the pending county district court case and reasoned that an insurance policy is considered a contract governed by the rules for interpretation of contracts. The plain language of the policy set the limit in this circumstance at $1 Million. The court further declared that, since it did not have the ability to rewrite the policy, it must proceed based on the agreement therein. American Economy Ins. Co. v. Rutledge, et al., 833 F.Supp.2d 1320 (W.D. Okla. 2011).

Choice of Law Governing The Liability Under An Insurance Contract

A product distributor in the oil-drilling industry was sued by several individuals claiming they were exposed to asbestos in the products distributed. The distributor subsequently filed claims with its multiple insurance companies seeking liability coverage. The insurers disagreed there was coverage for the liability claims under the policies. A series of declaratory judgment actions ensued in which the parties requested the Court to determine which party(ies), if any, were responsible for the cost of the extensive asbestos litigation the distributor was defending.

In one of the declaratory judgment actions in Federal court, the distributor/insured filed a counterclaim adding the parent company of the insurer as a separate party even though there was no contract with the parent company. It was argued by the distributor that the parent insurance company was responsible for the claims of its subsidiary which was merely an alter ego of the parent company. The parent insurance company filed a motion to dismiss the action alleging it was not liable for the subsidiaries obligation as it was a separate corporation.

The Court decided Oklahoma law did not apply to the issue of liability as to the parent company since the subsidiary was incorporated in the state of Indiana. Despite being filed in an Oklahoma Federal court, the court was required to look to the laws of the state of incorporation of the subsidiary insurance company as to whether to pierce the corporate veil. The court granted the parent company’s motion to dismiss. Canal Ins. Co. v. Montello, Inc., et al., 822 F.Supp.2d 1177 (Okla. 2011).